Lab-PSE designs and validates research instruments to study different competences in the area of social understanding and emotional understanding.


The questionnaire, that can be filled in by parents, measures the empathy (emotional contagion, attention to others’ feelings, prosocial actions) in children between 18 and 36 months old.

Download: EmQue-I13

Prosocial behaviours

The questionnaire, which can be filled in by parents, measures parental prosocial socialization practices in the first three years of children’s life.

Download: PPPQ

Find out more: Brazzelli, E., Grazzani, I., Pepe, A., Ornaghi, V., Conte, E. (2019). Parental socialization of prosocial development: psychometric properties of the Parental Prosocial Practices Questionnaire (PPPQ). In 19thEuropean Conference on Developmental Psychology – Abstract Book (pp. 717).

Theory of mind

The instruments measures the understanding of true belief in children between 22 and 46 months.

To find out more on the test: Wellman, H. M. (1991). “From desires to beliefs: acquisition of a theory of mind”, in A. Withen (ed.), Natural theories of mind. Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mindreading. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

To find out more on the theoretical model: Wellman, H. M. (2014). Making minds. How Theory of mind develops. Oxford University Press, New York.